Expanded graphite is produced by treating natural or synthetic graphite with intercalation agents, which expand the layers of graphite. It is used as a sealing material, gasket, or filler in high-temperature and high-pressure applications. Its ability to withstand extreme conditions makes it ideal for use in automotive gaskets, industrial seals, and heat exchangers. It also finds applications in the nuclear industry and as a flame retardant material in building materials.

Purified graphite is a highly refined form of graphite that contains a very low level of impurities. It is used in high-precision applications such as in the manufacturing of semiconductor materials and equipment. In the electronics industry, it is used as a crucible for growing single crystal silicon, as a mold for the production of synthetic diamonds, and as a component in lithium-ion batteries. Its excellent thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity make it valuable in these applications.

Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. It is known for its extraordinary properties, including exceptional electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and thermal conductivity. Graphene has a wide range of potential applications, from electronics and energy storage to advanced materials and medical devices. It can be used in flexible electronics, supercapacitors, transparent conductive films, and even as a reinforcement material in composites. Its potential in the field of medicine includes drug delivery systems and biosensors due to its biocompatibility. Graphene's versatility and unique properties have garnered significant attention in research and development across various industries.


A lightweight metal that is highly reactive and versatile. It is primarily used in the production of lithium-ion batteries, which power a wide range of devices, from smartphones and laptops to electric vehicles (EVs). These batteries are preferred for their high energy density, long lifespan, and fast charging capabilities. Lithium batteries are also used in renewable energy storage systems, such as home energy storage and grid-scale applications. In addition to batteries, lithium is used in various industries, including the production of ceramics, glass, and aluminum alloys. It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry to treat certain mood disorders. Due to its importance in the EV and renewable energy sectors, lithium is considered a critical mineral for the transition to a more sustainable energy future.